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Nursing Regular from Procedure Protocol: Nutrition around Aging

Rose Ann DiMaria-Ghalili, PhD, Rn, CNSN

Evidence-Based Content -- Up to date This summer 2012
Reprinted using choice through Springer Establishing Firm. Evidence-Based Geriatric Caring for Protocols intended for Preferred Procedure, Last Option, © Springer Putting up Organization, LLC.

All of these methodologies were definitely modified and additionally researched on Sector doctor's offices or restaurants. Any text is to choose from here.

The information for the "Want to help find out more" spot is without a doubt tidy according to make sure you the actual immediately after important ingredients from any Caregiving PROCESS:

Parameters involving Assessment
Nursing Consideration Strategies
Evaluation plus Expected Outcomes
Follow-up Monitoring
Relevant Guidelines


Improvement inside evidence about nutritional status in arrangement so that you can increase practicable status together with normal well-being and increase confident food status.

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Older older people are actually located at danger with regard to malnutrition, through 39% towards 47% connected with hospitalized earlier older individuals malnourished or even located at possibility intended for malnutrition (Ref 1).

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Malnutrition: Every disorder from food condition, which include concerns ensuing as a result of an important deficit associated with source of nourishment consumption, inable fertilizing rate of metabolism, or over-nutrition.


Etiology and/or Epidemiology. Old people can be located at risk regarding under-nutrition anticipated in order to health, economic, psychosocial, as well as physical points (Ref 2).

1. Health intake

a. Modest and / or hardly any passion (Ref 3; 3 ; 5)

b. Troubles with the help of consuming or even swallowing (Ref 6).

c. Enjoying poor amounts of vitamins (Ref 6).

d. Ingesting a lower number of when compared with a couple of dishes a time (Ref 5).


Constrained salary might possibly bring about stops around a number for dinners consumed for day as well as weight loss superior with servings taken. 6


Older Individuals


a. Elder adults who seem to survive by themselves could reduce motivation to help prepare dinner simply because connected with lonesomeness. 7

b. Desire from widows slows down. 7

c. Difficulties preparing owing to make sure you ailments. 6

d. Don't have associated with entry that will travel to be able to get diet (Ref 2).

4. Continual Illness

a. Persistent types of conditions will be able to threaten take in (Ref 6).


Disability can hinder capacity to help you cook and / or ingest nutrition (Ref 5).

c. Depressive disorder may induce lessened hunger. 8, 9

d. Awful by mouth healthiness (e.g., cavities, teeth condition, as well as absent teeth) along with xerostomia, articles concerning diet regime meant for elderly grown ups essay dried mouth, affects opportunity in order to lubricate, masticate, in addition to digest foods (Ref 5).


Antidepressants, antihypertensives, in addition to bronchodilators can chip in towards xerostomia (dry mouth) (Ref 2).

5. Physical changes

a. Diminish through slender figure mass fast not to mention redistribution of unwanted weight available central parts lead to make sure you lessen caloric specifications. 10, 11

b. Alter around essence (from prescription drugs, fertilizing insufficiencies, or perhaps tastebud atrophy) could equally adjust natural level (Ref sitar indian applications essay so that you can top
Parameters of Assessment


Aging, Food Situation along with Health

General: For the period of workout caregiving comparability, virtually any adjustments around typical analysis guidelines in which control content, intake, and / or ingestion regarding nourishing substances should certainly possibly be further more applied essay approximately item 8 mt435 published assignment discover if any senior individual might be mainly because food risk.

All these variables comprise of typically the following:

1. Summary assessment, including found heritage, review involving signs, past professional medical and even high tech story, and co-morbidities. 12.

2. Sociable record. 12

3. Drug–nutrient interactions: Medications are able to adjust typically the vitamin necessities not to mention fat burning capacity regarding aged persons.

Limited diets, malnutrition, variations on having patterns, alcoholism, and persistent sickness with the help of long-term pill treatment method are generally several with this financial risk factors with elderly older individuals who area individuals during risk to get drug–nutrient communications.


4. Efficient limitations. 14

5. Mental standing (Ref 14)

6. Target assessment: external assessment utilizing motivation with by mouth examination (see Verbal Healthiness Consideration topic from www.ConsultGeriRN.org), decline connected with subcutaneous weight, performance spending, BMI12 as well as dysphagia.


Nutritional Intake: in-depth analysis about nutritionary absorption for the period of hospitalization may perhaps be described using a good 3-day calorie be counted (dietary consume analysis).(Ref 2)

C. Eating routine Hazard Examination Tool: All the Mini-Nutritional Examination (MNA) must become being used that will establish in the event that a strong more mature hospitalized persistent might be often located at hazard to get malnutrition or even contains malnutrition.

The actual MNA decides threat structured in nutrition absorption, flexibility, BMI, the past connected with unwanted weight impairment, internal hassle, or possibly extreme ailment not to mention dementia or perhaps alternative internal ailments.

In cases where a fico score is usually 11 areas or perhaps not as much, the particular in-depth MNA evaluation will need to end up being practice condition reports turning to essay (Ref 15).

Try This specific Matter 9 : Health supplements Letter involving utility meant for medical school essay within More aged Adults


1. Secure a strong adequate bodyweight as well as position via lead rank. Implement possibly not count in individual call to mind. In the event client is unable to take a position place accountant app traditional component essay measure length, subsequently knee-height size might come to be undertaken to help you approximate distance off the ground using unique knee-height calipers.

Peak must in no way turn out to be approximated and also remembered, due to shortening from any spinal cord by using state-of-the-art age; self-reported position can become away as a result of while a number of mainly because 2.4 cm (Ref 15).

2. Body fat history: Any complete fat heritage should certainly end up obtained around with today's body fat.

Thorough story should contain the track record involving excess fat damage, even if that excess fat loss was first deliberate or perhaps unintended, and for the period of what period of time. Any decrease in 10 weight in some sort of 6-month span, regardless if deliberate and teaching any six features for writing, is actually any crucial signal to get further analysis (Ref 2; 16).


Evaluate physical structure mass fast index (BMI) to help you figure out whenever excess weight pertaining to position can be within just typically the regular assortment of 22–27. A new BMI down below 22 is actually your mark about under-nutrition (Ref 16).

E. Visceral Necessary protein. Analyze serum albumin, transferrin, as well as prealbumin happen to be visceral aminoacids usually used to help you evaluate not to mention keep track of dietary level (Ref 2).

Still, these meats can be unfavorable acute-phase reactants; thus, all through a fabulous emotional tension think, creation is normally typically lessen. Around a great older hospitalized calm, albumin amounts will probably often be some improved sign in forecast as compared with natural position (Ref 17).

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Nursing Proper care Systems (Ref 2)



1. Recommend to help dietitian whenever calm is from financial risk pertaining to as well as has under-nutrition.

2. Speak with through pharmacologist towards critique person's medications with regard to practical drug–nutrient interactions.

3. Confer with with the help of some sort of multidisciplinary company specializing in nutrition.

4. Seek advice from through cultural workforce, occupational hypnotherapist, not to mention speech and toast hypnotherapist while appropriate.


Ease Dry Persuasive essay or dissertation medication. Stay clear of caffeine; alcohol; tobacco; along with dry up, huge, hot and spicy, salty, or maybe really acidic foods.

2. When patient may not experience dementia and also swallowing conditions, provide sugarless difficult candies or maybe biting gum to make sure you activate saliva.


Lyric poem assignment lips wet by using petroleum jelly.

4. Strongly encourage common sips connected with water.

C. Continue to keep sufficient healthy intake: Regular wants regarding nourishing elder men and women can include Thirty kcal each and every kg involving entire body fat along with 0.8 so that you can 1g/kg from healthy proteins for time of day, by means of virtually no more as compared to 30% for unhealthy calories out of excess fat.

Caloric, carbohydrate, aminoacids, and additionally excess fat prerequisites could possibly differ depends upon upon college degree for malnutrition together with physical stress.

D. Advance oral intake

1. Evaluate every one patient's opportunity to actually eat in just Twenty-four working hours from admission.

(Ref 18)

2. Mealtime times towards pinpoint exactly how a lot food items is normally eaten and if advice is normally necessary. (Ref 18)

3. Limit people splits in order to prior to when or simply following calm model posts regarding organisation family table a good essay to make sure you be certain stateless terrorism specific description essay staff tend to be attainable to help guidance with the help of meal.

(Ref 18)

4. Strongly encourage family group members so that you can what is actually battered partner issue essay in mealtimes.


Ask home to help provide treasured foodstuff as a result of residence as soon as appropriate.

6. Check with with regards to and also live up too affected person food preferences.

7. Imply small to medium sized regular foodstuff utilizing the correct nutritional vitamins to help you assist patients gain back and also continue to keep unwanted weight. (Ref 19)

8. Give full of natural goodness your snacks. (Ref spherical coordinates car loans calculator essay. Benefit customer using oral caution plus placement involving dentures well before food stuff is definitely dished up.

(Ref 18)

E. Offer you good atmosphere regarding meals

1. Remove bedpans, urinals, together with emesis basin by room or space well before mealtime.

2. Provide analgesics and antiemetics upon a good lifestyle which might reduce that prospect associated with agony or perhaps feeling sick all through mealtimes.

3.Serve foods towards patients during a new office chair any time some people could get hold of out involving foundation together with be seated.


Build a fabulous alot more laid-back aura as a result of sitting with any patient’s eye ball amount school outfits debate essay or dissertation topics doing vision get in touch with at the time of feeding.

5. Purchase your later meal tray or retain meals warm in the event subjects happen to be not even through their room in your home through mealtime.


Implement not necessarily disrupt affected individuals with regard to round along with nonurgent treatments in the course of mealtimes.

F. Skilled eating assistance.

(Ref 20)

1. Commence special natural service any time an important sufferer cannot, should certainly in no way, and also may not really devour satisfactorily not to mention if a rewards about eating routine outweigh typically the attached risks.


Preceding atheist quarrels against abortion essays initiation associated with professional natural assist, evaluate your person's state-of-the-art directives pertaining to all the benefit from from fake diet and also hydration.

G. Offer you oral supplements

1. Supplements should not really take the place of meals however somewhat come to be offered concerning food items still not likely after only your hours previous a good dining event and additionally for bed.

(Ref 20, 21)2. Confirm of which common product can be in acceptable temps. (Ref 19)
3. Be sure that will by mouth supplement packing is ın a position so that you can get open simply by the actual persons. (Ref 19)
4. Watch all the eating involving that recommended by doctors add to.

(Ref 19)
5. Promote an important glass style associated with aid content. (Ref 19)
6. Comprise of products simply because area regarding the actual prescription medication protocol. (Ref 19)
H. N.P.O. orders

1. Routine more aged grownups for analyze and also techniques quick on that morning towards greatly reduce that length in moment that they are not likely able to actually eat along with drink.

2. If trying out latter inside all the day time is normally certain, check with physician when the affected person could have a particular early breakfast.


Discover U . s . Society involving Anesthesiologists training principle relating to encouraged amount of time associated with time clients really should come to be placed N.P.O. with regard to optional high tech types of procedures. research press in manufacturing technology 22)

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Evaluation/Expected Outcomes



1. Should encounter betterment through signs regarding healthy status.

2. Definitely will boost purposeful reputation not to mention normal well-being.

B. Provider

1. Will need to ensure that that treatment will provide meals not to mention water associated with sufficient number together with good quality during a great natural world good to help consuming, through ideal guidance (e.g., improved consuming aids) to get persons whom may well sometimes munch on in addition to ingest yet really are ineffective towards nourish on their own.

(Ref 16)

2. Need to remain towards reflect on subjects exactly who usually are malnourished or by probability intended for malnutrition. (Ref 16)

3. Will need to keep track of just for refeeding issue. (Ref 16)

C. Institution

1. May confirm which most health consideration industry experts which really are precisely called for inside individual care and attention obtain instruction not to mention exercising regarding the actual relevance from giving the correct eating routine.

(Ref 16)

D. Articles upon eating designed for more aged parents essay. Confirm QA/QI activities associated with dietary managing throughout the aging process patients.

E. Educational

1. Carrier degree not to mention exercising incorporates typically the following:

a. eating requires as well as clues meant for diet regime support

b. selections with regard to eating plan assistance (oral, enteral, in addition to parenteral)


ethical and additionally 100 % legal concepts

d. capability risks in addition to benefits

e. when as well as when so that you can request expert advice (Ref 16)

2. Individual and/or caregiver certification features the simplest way so that you can manage or even boost nutritionary state, while properly while ways that will administrate, anytime right, by mouth fruit juice health supplements, enteral hose fertilising, and parenteral nutrition.

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Follow-up Overseeing (Ref 16)


Keep an eye on regarding moderate enhance throughout unwanted weight more than time.

1. Take into consideration sufferer each week towards monitor styles around weight.

2. Day-to-day weights can be helpful pertaining to keeping track of material status.

B. Display and even analyse regarding refeeding syndrome.

1. With care screen together with determine sufferers the particular very first week of competing nutritional repletion.


Evaluate in addition to right that pursuing electrolyte abnormalities: Hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperglycemia, as well as hypoglycemia.

3. Assess solution reputation by using normal loads and even rigorous eating plus output.


Assess to get congestive core disappointment on persons together with breathing or possibly heart difficulties.

5. Make sure that caloric targets should often be come to incrementally alot more as opposed to 3 to Contemplate times in order to keep away from refeeding situation any time repletion in vitamin position is normally warranted.


Always be conscious which will refeeding symptoms will be not really special to patients started with extreme man-made diet regime although might possibly equally possibly be determined inside aged consumers using long-term co-morbid health-related ailments in addition to bad nutritious in your diet launched with extreme nutritionary repletion by way of by mouth intake.

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Relevant Guidelines


National Society associated with Anesthesiologists (1999). Process specifications just for preoperative fasting and even a make use of from pharmacologic providers to diminish the particular threat connected with pulmonary aspiration: App to help health and fitness persons undergoing elective treatments. Anesthesiology, That, 896–905.

B. Nationalized Collaborating Hub just for Desperate Maintenance (2006).

Nutrition assistance during our region encourages versatility associated with special message essay By mouth food intake guidance, enteral pipe providing for as well as parenteral nutrition.

The united kingdom, UK: Countrywide Commence designed for Wellness and even Scientific Efficiency (NICE). Investigation and requirement very little. Thirty-two. Vapor copies: Obtainable inside Pdf file format from which Country wide Institutes intended for Wellness as well as Health-related Good quality (NICE) World wide web site.


North american The community pertaining to Parenteral in addition to Enteral Eating routine (2002). Rules of thumb meant for a benefit from about parenteral in addition to enteral food intake on personal together with pediatric individuals. Log involving Parenteral in addition to Enteral Eating plan, 26, 1SA–138SA. (Note: These kinds of suggestions are usually having the revision.)

D. College involving Arizona, Education involving Breastfeeding (2006).

Unintentional pounds damage inside the seniors. Austin tx, TX: University regarding Mississippi, El draque essay of Looking after. (Note: All these regulations are generally based on www.guidelines.gov. However, the friend piece of content with the help of maximum bibliography can be not within a general public domain.)

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For Explanation associated with Amounts with Quantitative Facts Mouse click Here

Reprinted by means of choice coming from Springer Creation Supplier.

DiMaria-,Ghalili R.A. (2008). Nutrition through aging. On At the. Capezuti, t Zwicker, n Mezey, & To. Fulmer (Eds.), Evidence-based geriatric caregiving methods for the purpose of most beneficial perform. (3rd ed.). (pp. 353-367).

Innovative York: Springer Creating Firm, Inc.


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doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03016.x. The evidence Amount I.

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(2005). Eating throughout senior grown ups. Usa Log from Nursing jobs, 105 (3), 40–51. Signs Gender verbal exchanges scholarly articles and reviews essay VI: Skilled Opinion.


Carlsson, P., Tidermark, J., Ponzer, S., Soderqvist, A., & Cederholm, Testosterone levels. (2005). Nutrition behavior via verde case study desire for food of aging adults females for any occasion associated with a femoral guitar's neck crack and additionally immediately after diet in addition to anabolic program. Record in Real human Eating habits plus Dietetics, 17, 117–120.

Data Degree II: Private Trial and error Study.

4. Reuben, h B., Hirsch, Lenses. H., Zhou, K., & Greendale, f An important. (2005). How towards a blueprint a fabulous picture essay benefits connected with megestrol acetate suspension meant for aged clients through diminished appetite after hospitalization: The section II randomized professional medical test.

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5. Saletti, A., Johansson, L., Yifter-Lindgren, E., Wissing, U., Osterberg, K., & Cederholm, Big t. (2005). Vitamin situation along with any 3-year follow-up through aging adults obtaining help support for residence. Gerontology, 1951, 192–198. Research Degree IV: Nonexperimental Study.

6. Margetts, s M., Thompson, n L., Elia, M., & Fitzgibbons, A good. Some sort of.

(2003). Occurrance with possibility from under-nutrition is actually associated through bad health and wellness situation throughout elderly people today for this British isles. Western Paper in Specialized medical Diet, 57, 69–74. Signs Stage IV: Nonexperimental Study.

7. Souter, S., & Keller, m (2002). Foodstuff alternative around all the rural-dwelling more mature parent. Northern Online Paper in Nurses Explore, 5(3). Recovered August 1, 2004, through http://www.snrs.org/publications/SOJNR_articles/iss05vol03.pdf.

The evidence Degree IV: Nonexperimental Study.

8. Kagansky, N., Berner, Y., Koren-Morag, N., Perelman, L., Knobler, H., & Garnishment, Utes. (2005). Inferior diet behavior happen to be predictors of inadequate direct result throughout very unwanted hospitalized affected individuals.

North american Log with Professional medical Diet regime, 82, 784-791. Information Level IV.

9. Morley, t Orite. (2001).

Nutrition Troubles simply because We tend to Age

Anorexia, sarcopenia, and additionally growing older. Diet, 17(7–8), 660–663. Signs Grade V: Story Literature Review.

10. Thomas, Ve had. R., Zdrowski, d D., Wilson, Meters, Conright, t C., Lewis, C., Tariq, S., et al. (2002). Malnutrition around subacute health care. Us Record associated with Scientific Nourishment, 75, 308–313.

Signs Quality IV: Nonexperimental Study.

11. Janssen, I., Heymsfield, 's. B., Allison, Debbie. B., Kotler, d P., & Ross, 3rd r. (2002). Entire body mass fast listing along with waistline area on his own make contributions to make sure you your prediction associated with nonabdominal, tummy, subcutaneous, and visceral unwanted weight. U . s citizens Publication connected with Analysis and Eating routine, Seventy-five, 683–688.

Facts Stage IV: Nonexperimental Study.


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School in Mississippi, The school in Birkenstock (2006). Accidental body fat deprivation within all the seniors. Austin tx, TX: Higher education with Colorado front range, Class regarding Nursing. (Note: A lot of these specifications really are placed at www.guidelines.gov. But, that partner report using entire bibliography might be in no way for all the common domain.)


National Working together Middle of the town intended for Good Consideration (2006). Healthy eating plan assistance in adults: Common food intake help, enteral pipe eating in addition to thesis inside it management healthy eating plan. Birmingham, UK: Country wide Initiate pertaining to Health and wellness not to mention Surgical Superiority (NICE). Articles regarding diet intended for older grown ups essay guidance basically no.

Thirty two. Vapor copies: Out there in Pdf file component out of which will Indigenous Institutes for the purpose of Health as well as Investigation and Good quality (NICE) Website.

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The Us Publication of Medical Eating, 79, 613-618. Data Point IV.

15. Guigoz, Y., Lauque, S., & Vellas, B.J. (2002). Pinpointing your older people during threat meant for malnutrition. This Tiny Nutritional Comparability. Skin clinics during Geriatric Medicine, 18,737-757. Explanation Stage V.


Boullata, l (2004) Drug-nutrient friendships. Through P.H. Worthington, Functional points about dietary support: A great highly developed apply direct (pp. 431–454). Philadelphia: Saunders. Facts Stage VI: Professional Opinion.

17. Salva, A., Corman, B., Andrieu, S., Salas, J., Vellas, B., in addition to the World Association of Gerontology/International Academy about Diet regime not to mention Maturity (IAG/IANA) Job Power (2004).

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Data Level I.

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20. Us Modern culture to get Parenteral in addition to Enteral Diet regime (2002).

Suggestions with regard to that utilize with parenteral along with enteral nourishment with mature and even pediatric affected individuals. Record in Parenteral and also Enteral Nutrition, 26, 1SA–138SA. (Note: These kind of regulations are actually considering revision.)

21. Wilson, Mirielle. G., Purushothaman, R., & Morley, j Elizabeth.

(2002). All the benefit from dissolved nutritionary supplements about vitality content around that aged. U . s citizens Magazine connected with Medical Eating habits, 75, 944–947. Information Tier IV: Nonexperimental Study.

22. United states Modern culture about Anesthesiologists (1999). Rehearse regulations for the purpose of preoperative starting a fast plus a work with associated with pharmacologic brokers towards lower the actual probability about pulmonary aspiration: Program to health and wellness subjects considering elective methods.

Nutrition through any Elderly

Anesthesiology, That, 896–905.

Last refreshed -- Come early july 2012

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Topic Resources

Journal Articles

Alibhai, S.M.H., Greenwood, C., & Payette, They would. (2005). Some sort of solution so that you can all the direction in unintentional body fat decrease during aging population people. Canadian Medical-related Connection Journal, 172, 773-780.

Henkel, g (2004). Food intake Ideas to get LTC.

Carriers recommend that flexibility & tact for you to greater work residents' diet needs. Eating plan Basics meant for LTC. Caring meant for this Age range, 5(12), pp.12-22.

American Contemporary society for Parenteral and additionally Enteral Eating habits. (2002). Recommendations articles concerning eating routine with regard to earlier men and women essay the particular take advantage of in parenteral and even enteral nourishment within adult along with pediatric patients. Journal associated with Parenteral and additionally Enteral Eating, Twenty six (1 Supplement), 1SA-138SA.

Council non minimal essay check online Nutritionary Professional medical Plans around Long-term Health care.

(2004). Excess weight loss: A good fundamental indication of undernutrition sites such as bestgore essay long-term care. http://www.ltcnutrition.org

DiMaria-Ghalili, R.A., & Amella, E.J. (2005). Nutrition during more mature adults. American Diary of Caring for, 105 (3), 40-50.

Huffman, f h (2002).

Evaluating plus managing unintentional bodyweight burning with any elderly. American Family Medical doctor, 65, 640-650.

Institute for Medicinal drugs. (2000). The part in diet regime inside having any nation’s elderly: reviewing coverage from eating expert services just for all the Treatment population
Buenos aires, DC: Nationwide Academies Press.

Morley, JE, Thomas, Dr.

(2004). Pointers for that implement involving orexigenic medicines throughout long-term care. Annals connected with Extended term Good care, 06 2004, Supplement.http://www.ltcnutrition.org/pdf/OrexigenicDrugs.pdf

Nutrition Security scanning Gumption.

(2002). Nutrition Survey for Rationale. Recovered from http://www.eatright.org/PUblic/Files/nutrition(1).pdf.

Thomas, Medical professional, Ashmen, Watts, Morley JE, Evans WJ. (2000). Health control during long-term care: Growth connected with some sort of investigation and guideline. Journal Gerontological and Organic Scientific research Mediterranean sea Sci., 55 (12), pp.

M725-34. Discover at www.guideline.gov.

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